John Kennedy




A.  Biographical Information                       


      Name:                                John M. Kennedy


Date of Birth:                      November 29, 1942


Citizenship:             U.K. (Canadian Landed Immigrant)


Home address:                   30 Rustywood Drive,

                                          Don Mills, Ontario

                                          M3A 1R8


Home telephone:                 (416) 444-1856


University address:  Division of Life Sciences, Psychology

                                          Scarborough College

                                          University of Toronto

                                          Scarborough, Ontario.  M1C 1A4


Office telephone:                 (4l6) 287‑7435  FAX (416) 287-7642

                                          (email Kennedy@lake.scar.utoronto)




B.Sc.                      Queen's University, Belfast, U.K.                                              1965

                              (First Class Honours:    Thesis Supervisor:  Dr. P. McEwen)


M.Sc.                     Queen's University, Belfast, U.K.                                              1966

                              (Experimental Psychology: Thesis Supervisor:  Dr. P. McEwen)


Ph.D.                     Cornell University, Ithaca, New York                           1971

                              Major Subject:  Experimental Psychology

                              Advisor:  Dr. J. J. Gibson


                              Minor Subjects:  Psycholinguistics

                              Advisor:  Dr. E. Lenneberg

                              Developmental Psychology

                              Advisor:  Dr. H. Ginsburg


                              Title of Ph.D. Thesis:   Line representation and pictorial perception





Present appointment:           Professor

                                          Division of Life Sciences

                                          Scarborough College

                                          University of Toronto


Date of appointment to graduate school:                                          1973


Date of tenure award:                                                                     1976


Previous positions:


‑ Associate Professor, Division of Life Sciences                              1976‑1984


‑ Assistant Professor, Division of Life Sciences                                1972‑1976

  Scarborough College, University of Toronto


‑ Assistant Professor, Department of Social Relations,                     1970-1972

  Harvard University (Cross‑appointed to Harvard

  Graduate School of Education 1970‑72,

  Department of Visual and Environmental Studies, 1972;

  Psychology Department, 1972).


Honours, Awards, Boards:


2000                    Contributor, “The colours of darkness,” Best Foreign Video, New York Film Festival, December. ( Director: Gulnihal Antepli)


2000          Visiting Professor, Salzburg University, May 1—Sept 7


1999          Chair, Nominating Committee, Division 10, American Psychological Association


1998          Fellow: International Association for Empirical Aesthetics


1998-01         Committee member: Humanities and Social Sciences Federation of Canada:

                  Aid to Scholarly Publications Programme


                                    1997-01           Editor: Metaphor and Symbol


                                    1998-00           Board member, Audio Description International


                                    1997-01           Board of the International Society for Ecological Psychology


1997-99         Organizing Committee International Conference on Perception and

Action 10, Edinburgh


                                    1997    Visiting Fellow, Monash University, Oct./Nov.



1997                    Organizer: International Conference on Perception and Action, 9,

                  July 20-25, University of Toronto at Scarborough


1996-98       Chair, Fellows Committee, Division 10, Psychology and the Arts,

                  American Psychological Association


1995          A.F.W. Plumptre Award, University of  Toronto at Scarborough


1995-96     Vice President, Toronto Semiotic Circle


                                    1994    University of Toronto at  Scarborough: Teaching Award


1994                    Fellow, General Psychology, Division 1, American

                  Psychological Association


1994-95     Governing Board, International Summer Institute for Semiotics


1994                    Science Leaders meetings (January; August) American Psychological

                  Association:  Delegate from Division 10, Psychology & the Arts


1992          Danish Research Academy:  Visiting Professor (Fall)


1992-93       President, Psychology and the Arts, Division 10, American Psychological



1991-92         Program chair, Psychology and the Arts, Division 10, American

                  Psychological Association


                                    1991-92           President, Toronto Semiotic Circle


                                    1991    Fellow, Psychology and the Arts, Division 10, American Psychological Association


1990-91     Vice President, Toronto Semiotic Circle


1990-93     Director, McLuhan Centre, University of Toronto


1989          Fellow, Canadian Psychological Association


1989-         Advisory Board, Art Education of the Blind, New York


1984‑87     Director:  International Society for Ecological Psychology


1982‑83     Advisory Panel, International Conference on Psychology & Art, British Psychological Association


1978‑79     Canada Council Fellowship


1974                    National Society for the Study of Education, Nominated to Honorary



1973          N.A.T.O. Visiting Lecturer to Italy, Britain and Denmark


1972          Young Psychologist's Award, American Psychological Association


1971          Nominated to Sigma Xi (Full Member)


1969‑70     Cornell Graduate Fellowship


1969          Nominated to Sigma Xi (Associate)


1969          Nominated to Phi Kappa Phi (Graduate Honour Society) Cornell University


1968‑69     Dallenbach Fellowship, Department of Psychology, Cornell University


1966          Fullbright Travel Grant to the United States, (extended 1967‑70)


1966‑67     Dunville Studentship, Queen's University;  renewed by special permission of the Academic Council


1966          E.S. Montgomery Travelling Scholarship, Queen's University


1965‑66     Major State Scholarship, Ministry of Education, N. Ireland


1965‑66     Dunville Studentship (Scholarship) Queen's University


1965          Elected Honourary Vice‑President, Psychology Society, Queen's University



Affiliations and Activities:


Editor:  Metaphor and Symbol (1997-2001)

Project Zero, Harvard University; Canadian Society for Brain, Behaviour and

Cognitive Sciences Canadian Psychological Association, American Psychological Association, Psychonomic Society, Cognitive Science Society; American Psychological Society;  International Society for Ecological Psychology;

Editor on first board:  Journal of Visual Communication (founded 1979);  Metaphor and Symbolic Activity (founded 1985);  Semiotic Review of Books (founded 1990); VISIO (founded 1996); International Journal of Applied Semiotics (founded 1997).

Referee for:  American Psychologist; Metaphor and Symbolic Activity; Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance;  Perception;  Quarterly Journal of Psychology; Leonardo;  Psychologische Forschung (Psychological Research); Italian Journal of Psychology;  Perception and Psychophysics; Scientific Aesthetics;  Interchange;  Attention and Performance; Psychological Review; National Research Council;  Canada Council;  Canadian Psychological Association;  March of Dimes Research Fund; National Science Foundation;  Science; Nature; Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour; Australian Research Grants Scheme; Ontario Mental Health Foundation; Cognitive Psychology; British Columbia Research Grants; Canadian Journal of Psychology; King's College Research Grants; Killam Fellowships; Child Development; Spatial Vision; Getty Museum; Queen's Quarterly; Journal of Experimental Child Psychology; Guggenheim Foundation; Rockefeller Foundation; Theory and Psychology;  United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation; Cognitive Development; Psychonomic Bulletin and Review; Developmental Psychology; Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council; Scandinavian Journal of Psychology; Human Factors; Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism; European Conference on Visual Perception, Discourse Processes.


B.  Academic History


a)  Research activities




Problems of representation in perception and cognition:


There are metaphors in pictures as well as language and other media.  The basis is features the topic and vehicle are said to share. Form symbolism also relies on common features.  The features allow classification and propositions.  Contrary views by Lakoff & Johnson are analyzed in papers with J. Vervaeke. The propositional reasoning is a formal system which can be learned by a parallel distributed process, I contend, with C. Green. The contradictions in tropes allow attitudes to be conveyed, I contend in papers with D. Berntsen.  Symbolism can operate with forms across languages, I show with C.H. Liu. Metaphor requires more features than similes, and much more than analogies and form symbols, I find, with D. Chiappe. Indeed, metaphor increases apparent similarity, we find.





a.       With J. Bai, A. D'Angiulli and M.A. Heller I find the congenitally blind understand tangible outline drawings of common objects. Also they can make outline drawings of objects.  Drawing ability develops in blind children much as it does in young sighted children.  The haptic environment is distal as well as proximal. Tactile pictures can be apt, and aptness affects recognition and repetition.


b.     Blind children and adults understand aspects of polar perspective, including vantage points, projection and convergence, since the haptic environment involves directions.


c.       Metaphoric features of shape in depiction are understood by the blind and the sighted I find (with P. Gabias, and C. Merkas). This finding lead to my research on metaphor and symbolism. 


d.   Passive haptic perception of  raised‑line drawings is superior to active perception, I find, with L. Magee and B. Richardson  Information, not activity or passivity, is the basis for haptics. We are testing a tactile machine that can access the internet and provide pictures for the blind.





a.       Outline creates untaught perceptual effects in vision and touch.

Research on cave‑art and non‑pictorial peoples from Papua/New Guinea provides supportive evidence.             Line depicts relief (not shape-from-shadow). Line is not inherently visual, and not coloured or bright.


b.  Polar perspective geometry is a privileged system among several relevant pictorial systems, rather than the only correct one.  With A. Nicholls, a developmental theory of drawing has been proposed and tested with 1000 children, and 1000 adults, showing the growing influence first of foreshortening and later of convergence, two aspects of polar perspective.


c.  Research with W.A. Simpson shows that the cross‑ratio, a polar-perspective invariant, does not aid space perception.   Rather, the use of perspective foreshortening depends on the angle subtended by the object. 


d.   Research with A. Nicholls shows parallel projection pictures are subject to the laws of foreshortening, like polar projection. 


e.   Research with I. Juricevic: visual angle percepts are affected by metric size (size in cm.)..







Theories that hold outline information is concentrated at points of change (Attneave, Biederman) are shown to be false, in a series of studies with R. Domander, notably. An alternative theory, supported by the studies, holds that distribution of information should be regular, a condition which permits ready extrapolation and interpolation.


Illusions are shown to be dispelled from suitable vantage-points, and illusions are not deceiving when the set of vantage points contains veridical invariants.  Illusions can be combined with additive results, studies with H. Miyoshi show. Veridical information is not additive - it is affirmative.




Subjective contour brightness is due to cente-surrround effects. Subjective contour clarity is due to extensions of inducing contour. The sides of lines allow assimilation.   Models of contour and axis formation have been proposed with S. Funk, I. Kumazawa and D. Todorovic. I also offer a new analysis of contours due to accretion and deletion.   Work with C. Ware has produced remarkable 3-D illusory contour figures which contribute to art as well as to psychology.  Research with children demonstrates that the contours and brightness are not deceptive, and, I suggest, are created by second‑order perceptual processes, akin to pictorial depth.


b)  Research Grants


Agency                                                                  Dates                          Funds p.a.


Telecommunications Advancement              1997 Jan-March                       5,445.06

Organization of Japan (Collaborative grant

with I. Kumazawa et al. Funds pa total is

my share)  



N.S.E.R.C (operating grant)                                  2000-2006                   20,000       

N.S.E.R.C. (operating grant)      initial award          1996-2000                   12,500

                                                                              [1999-2000                 14,438]

N.S.E.R.C. (operating grant)                                  1993-96                       10,000

Danish Research Academy                         1992                    11,000


Bureau von System Ontwikkeling

  (to McLuhan Inst. of which one part is                  1991-1994                  150,000

  my affiliation - the Perspective Unit)         


N.S.E.R.C. (operating grant)                                  1987‑1990                   20,000

                                                                              1984‑1987                   19,125

                                                                              1981‑1984                   10,500

                                                                              1978‑1981                   11,500




Humanities and Social Science                                1983                                 858

  Research Committee (Travel grant),

  Toronto U.


A.S. Hellyer (with B. Richardson)                           1979‑1980                     5,000


Canada Council                                                      1978‑1979

Leave fellowship                                                                                         18,000

Research Grant                                                                                             8,500


Connaught Fund (with 3 others)                              1977‑1979                   80,000


Medical Research Fund                                          1977                              1,200


N.R.C.                                                                   1975‑1978                     8,500


Toronto University                                      1972‑1973             1,000


Harvard Faculty Fund                                             1970‑1972                     2,000



C.  Note on Publications and Papers.


These are divided into three groups.  The first lists refereed articles.  The second lists books, invited chapters and articles.  The third, entitled Papers includes a larger miscellany:  conference papers, comments and pre-doctoral theses are included.  A list of talks given as colloquia or as interviews follows in E.







[  Kennedy, J.M. and Bai, J (in review) Judgments of the fit of tactile pictures to their referents. ]


     Chiappe, D. and Kennedy, J. M. (in press) Literal bases for metaphor and simile. Metaphor    

                    and Symbol   [Special issue Editor: R. Giora]


     D’Anguilli, A. and Kennedy, J. M. (2000) Children’s tactual exploration and copying

                     without  vision    International Journal of Rehabilitation Research,  23, 319-320


     Kennedy, J. M. and Merkas, C. (2000) Depictions of motion devised by a blind person.                                    

                   Psychonomic Bulletin and Review,  7, 700-706


     Kennedy, J.M. and Bai, J. (2000) Cavanagh and Leclerc shape-from-shadow pictures: do line                     

                   versions fail because of the polarity of the regions or the contour? Perception, 29,



      Cavanagh, P. and Kennedy, J. M. (2000) Close encounters: small details veto depth from              

                   shadows, Science, 287, 2451


Chiappe, D.L. and Kennedy, J.M. (2000) Are metaphors elliptical similes? Journal of

            Psycholinguistic Research, 29, 371--398


Chiappe, D.L. and Kennedy, J.M. (1999) Aptness predicts preference for metaphors or

          similes as well as recall bias. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 6, 668--676


Mirabella, G. and Kennedy, J.M. (1999) Which way is upright and normal? Haptic perception of letters above head level.  Perception and Psychophysics, 61, 909-918.


Kennedy, J.M. and Chiappe, D. (1999) What makes a metaphor stronger than a simile?

 Metaphor and Symbol, 14, 63--69. [Special issue]


D’Angiulli, A., Kennedy, J.M. and Heller, M.A. (1998). Blind children recognizing tactile pictures respond like sighted children given guidance in exploration.  Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 39,189-190. 


 Kennedy, V.R. and Kennedy, J.M. (1998) Form symbolism can be extended by style Acta

           Analytica , 20, 155—174.                                                                            


Liu, C.H. and Kennedy, J.M., (1997), Form symbolism, analogy and metaphor Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 4, 546-551.


Vervaeke, J. and Kennedy, J.M. (1996).  Metaphors in language and thought:  Disproof and multiple meanings.  Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 11 , 273-284.


Berntsen, D. and Kennedy, J.M. (1996)  Unresolved contradictions specify attitudes - in metaphor, irony, understatement and tautology. Poetics, 24, 13-29.


Nicholls, A. L. and Kennedy, J.M. (1995).  Foreshortening in cube drawings by children and adults.  Perception, 24, 1443-1556. 


Heller, M.A., Kennedy, J.M. and Joyner, A.D. (1995).  Production and interpretation of pictures of houses by blind people.  Perception, 1049-1058.


Liu, C.H. and Kennedy, J.M. (1995).  Misalignment effects in 3-D versions of Poggendorff displays. Perception and Psychophysics, 1995, 57, 409-415.


Liu, C.H. and Kennedy, J.M. (1994).  Symbolic forms can be mnemonics for recall.   Psychonomic Bulletin and Review,  1, 494-498.


Kennedy, J.M. and Kennedy, V.R. (1994).  Realism as a basis for reinterpretation in visual metaphor,  Canadian Journal of Rhetorical Studies, 4, 106-120.


Kennedy, J.M. (1994).  Diderot, Katz and axial theory of outline tactile pictures.  Revista de Psicologia, General y Aplicada,  47, 25-39. (Translated by J.C.F. Trespalacios)


Berntsen, D. and Kennedy, J.M. (1994).  Contradictions between metaphors:  A means of expressing an attitude.  Metaphor and Symbolic Activity,  9, 193-210. 


Nicholls, A. and Kennedy, J.M. (1993).  Angular subtense effects on perception of polar and parallel projections of cubes.  Perception and Psychophysics, 54, 763-772. 


Nicholls, A. and Kennedy, J.M. (1993).  Foreshortening and the perception of parallel projections. Perception and Psychophysics, 1993, 54, 665-674. 


Kennedy, J.M., Green, C.D. and Vervaeke, J. (1993).  Metaphoric thought and devices in pictures. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity,  8, 243-255.


Kennedy, J.M.  and Kennedy, V.R.  (1993).  Issue editors: Metaphor and Pictures. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 8, #3.


Kennedy, J.M. and Vervaeke, J. (1993).  Metaphor and knowledge attained via the body.  Philosophical Psychology,  6, 407-412.


Kennedy, J.M., Green, C.D., Nicholls, A. and Liu, C.H. (1992).  Illusions and knowing what is real.  Ecological Psychology,  4, 153-172. 


Nicholls, A. and Kennedy, J.M. (1992).  Drawing development:  from similarity of features to direction.  Child Development,  63, 227-241.


Kennedy, J.M. (1990).  Metaphor: Its intellectual basis.  Metaphor and Symbolic Activity,  5, 115-123.


Heller, M. A. and Kennedy, J.M. (1990).  Perspective taking, pictures, and the blind Perception and Psychophysics,  48, 459-466.


Kennedy, J.M. and Portal A. (1990)  Illusions:  Can change of vantage point and invariant impressions remove deception? Ecological Psychology,  2, 37-53.


Kennedy, J.M. (1989).  Universals of depiction, illusion as non‑pictorial and limits to depiction.  Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 12, 88-90.


Kennedy, J.M. (1988).  Line endings and subjective contours  Spatial Vision,  3, 151-158.


Kennedy. J. M. and Domander R. (1986).  Blind people depicting states and events in metaphoric line drawings.  Metaphor & Symbolic Activity, 1986, 1, 109‑126.


Kennedy, J.M. and Domander R. (1986).  Postures of twig figures: Reactions by the blind and the sighted. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 9, 63‑66.


Kennedy, J.M. (1985).  Its all done with mirrors: Proof of non‑existence Perception, 14, 513‑514.


Kennedy, J.M. and Domander R. (1985).  Shape and contour: the points of maximum change are least useful for recognition.  Perception, 14, 367‑370.


Kennedy, J.M. (1985). Arnheim, Gestalt theory and pictures Visual Arts Research, 11, 23‑44.


Kennedy, J.M. and Campbell. (1985). Convergence principle in blind people's pointing.  International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 8, 189‑210.


 Kennedy, J.M. and Gabias P. (1985).  Metaphoric devices in drawings of motion mean the same to the blind and the sighted. Perception, 14, 189‑195.


Kennedy, J.M. (1984).  Gombrich and Winner: Schema theories of perception in aesthetics Visual Arts Research, 10, 30‑36.


Kennedy, J.M  (1984).  Drawings by the blind: Sighted children and adults judge their sequence of development  Visual Arts Research, 10, 1‑6.


Kennedy, J.M. amd Domander, R. (1984).  Pictorial foreground‑background reversal reduces tactual recognition by the blind  Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness , May, 78, 215‑216.


Kennedy, J.M. (1983). What can we learn about pictures from the blind?  American Scientist,  71, 19‑26.


Kennedy, J.M.  and Simpson W. (1982).  For each kind of figure of speech there is a pictorial metaphor: A figure of depiction. Visual Arts Research, 16, 1‑11.


Kennedy, J.M. (1982).  Metaphor in pictures, Perception, 11, 589‑605.


Kennedy, J.M. (1982).  Depiction and its psychology  Journal of Biocommunication, 9, 9‑17.


Kennedy, J.M. (1981).  Illusory brightness and the ends of petals:  Change in brightness without aid of stratification or assimilation effects.  Perception, 10, 583‑585.


Kennedy, J.M. and Magee L.E. (1981).  Can passive tactile perception be better than active?  Nature,  292, 90.


Kennedy, J.M. (1980).  Structuralism and experimental aesthetics:  Bridging some gaps Motivation and Emotion, 4, 123‑131.


Kennedy, J.M.  (1980). A commentary on Rudolf Arnheim's approach to art and visual perception Leonardo, 13, 117‑122.


Magee L.E. and Kennedy, J.M. (1980).  Exploring pictures tactually. Nature, 283, 287‑288.


Kennedy, J.M. (1978).  Illusory contours and the ends of lines, Perception, 7, 605‑607.


Kennedy, J.M. and Ware C. (1978) Perception of subjective lines, surfaces and volumes in 3‑dimensional constructions (with C. Ware) Leonardo, 1978, 11, 111‑114.


Kennedy, J.M. and Ware C. (1978).  Illusory contours can arise in dot figures.  Perception,  7, 191‑194.


Kennedy, J.M. (1978).  Illusory contours not due to completion  Perception, 11, 187‑189.


Kennedy, J.M. (1977).  Natural reversing figures:  Interleaving Stars of David. Perception, 6, 231‑232.


Kennedy, J.M. (1977).  African peoples abilities with outline drawings, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 35, 293‑300.


Kennedy, J.M.  and Ware. C.  Illusory line linking solid rods. Perception, 1977, 6, 601‑602.


Kennedy, J.M. (1976).  Sun figure:  an illusory diffuse contour resulting from an arrangement of dots.  Perception, 5, 479‑48l.


Kennedy, J.M. (1976). A figure density hypothesis and illusory contour brightness.  Perception, 5, 387‑392.


Kennedy, J.M. (1976).  Comments on Deregowski's analysis of seeing a picture for the first time.  Leonardo, 9, 219‑221.


Kennedy, J.M. and Ross A. (1975).  Outline picture perception by the Songe of Papua.  Perception, 4, 39l‑406.


Masterton, B.and Kennedy, J.M. (1975).  Building the devil's tuning fork.  Perception, 4, 107‑109.


Kennedy, J.M. (1975).  Mental pictures (Letter).  Perception, 4, 120.


Kennedy, J.M. and Chattaway, L.D. (1975).  Subjective contours, binocular and movement phenomena.  Italian Journal of Psychology, 2, 353‑367.


Kennedy, J.M. (1975).  Depth at an edge, coplanarity, slant depth, change in direction and change in brightness in the production of subjective contours.  Italian Journal of Psychology, 2, 107‑123.


Kennedy, J.M. and Silver, J. (1974).  The surrogate functions of lines in visual perception:  Evidence from antipodal rock and cave art sources.  Perception, 3, 313‑322.


Kennedy, J.M. (1974).  Is gradual recognition of pictures by Ethiopian subjects a differentiation process or a pattern construction process?  Perception, 3, 29‑3l.


Kennedy, J.M. (1973).  Misunderstandings of figure and ground.  Scandinavian Journal of Psychology,  14, 207‑209.


Kennedy, J.M. (1972).  Perceived lines are not always the sums of their contours. Journal of Structural Learning, 3, 7‑10.


Kennedy, J.M., Mueller, E.and Tanimoto S. (1972).  Visual structure and inherent motivation.  Journal of Structural Learning, 3, 1‑6.


Kennedy, J.M. (1971).  Information and features in incomplete pictures.  Journal of Structural Learning, 2, 73‑75.


Kennedy, J.M. (1969).  Prismatic adaptation and the remembered location of targets. Perception and Psychophysics, 5, 218‑220.



Publications : Non‑refereed



Kennedy, J.M. (in press). Touch and the observer’s vantage point. In L. Albertazzi (Ed.) Perceptual continua Philadelphia: John Benjamins


 Kennedy, J.M. (in press) What motivates a blind person to draw? In E. Axel and N. Levent (Eds.) Art Education for the blind : Teacher’s resource guide. Louisville: American Printing House for the Blind


       Kennedy, J.M. (in press). Form symbolism across languages. In C. Zelinsky (Ed.) Text

                  Transfer: Metaphors and Translation. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter


Kennedy, J.M. (2001). Smart geometry! In T. Parks (Ed.) Looking at looking. Sage, London (31—50)


     Kennedy, J.M. (2001). A further look: tactics for detecting illusions In T. Parks (Ed.) Looking   

                     at looking. Sage, London (107--102)


Kennedy, J.M. (2000) Recognizing outline pictures via touch: Alignment theory.  In M.A.

            Heller (Ed.)  Touch, representation and blindness, Oxford (p.67-98).


Kennedy, J.M. and Oddson, B. (1999) Flow fields and curvature: Confusion about the path ahead. In M.A.Grealy and J.A.Thomson (Eds.), Studies in Perception and Action V.  Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J.


Kennedy, J.M. and Juricevic, I. (1999) Angular subtense and binocular vision: Worst than worst. In M.A.Grealy and J.A.Thomson (Eds.), Studies in Perception and Action V.  Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J.


Kennedy, J.M. (1998) Perception: Consistency and contradiction in the service of realism. Art Bulletin of the National Museum Stockholm, 5, 94-101.


Kennedy, J. M. (1998) Affordance (p.18--19), Gibson, James J. (p.256--257), Haptics (p. 281--283), Picture Perception (p. 486--489), Vision (p. 631--635): In P. Bouissac (Ed.) Encylopedia of Semiotics. Oxford University Press, Oxford.        


Kennedy, J.M. (1997).  Open and closed aspects of depiction:  Outline, perspective and rhetoric.  Degres, 89-90, 1-20.


Schmuckler, M. and Kennedy, J.M. Eds. (1997) Studies in Perception and Action IV, Erlbaum, Mahwah N.J.


Kennedy, J.M. and Green, C.D. (1997) Inference and pattern in perception theory. In Schmuckler, M. and Kennedy, J.M. (Eds.) Studies in Perception and Action IV, Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J.


Kumazawa, I., Kennedy, J.M. and Suzuki, K. (1997) Blur selectively affects the bases for alignment:  Position and orientation.  In Schmuckler, M. and Kennedy, J.M. (Eds.). Studies in Perception and Action IV, Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J.


Schmuckler, M. and Kennedy, J.M. (1997) Preface. In Schmuckler, M. and Kennedy, J.M. (Eds.). Studies in Perception and Action IV, Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J.


Eriksson, Y., Strucel, M. and Kennedy, J.M. (1997) From object to tactile picture (Fraan foeremaal til taktilbild.  SIH, Lycksele, Sweden.


Kennedy, J.M. (1997).  How the blind draw.  Scientific American, 276, 76-81.


Kennedy, J.M. (1997) Editorial Metaphor and Symbol, 12, 1-2.


Kennedy, J.M. (1996).  Metaphor in tactile pictures for the blind:  Using metonymy to evoke classification.  In A. Katz and J. Mio (Eds.) Metaphor: Applications and Implications, L. Erlbaum. Mahwah, New Jersey (pp. 215-229).


Liu, C.H. and Kennedy, J.M. (1996).  Form and its symbolic meaning.  In R. Woodfield (Ed.).  Gombrich on Art and Psychology , Manchester:  Manchester University Press.


Kennedy, J.M. (1996).  Review of M.V. Cox (1993) Children's drawings of the human figure:  American Journal of Psychology, 109, 150-157.


Kennedy, J.M., D’Anguilli, D. and Stewart, A. (1995). Passive exploration of tactile pictures is especially effective for children and Optacon users.  In J. Ronnberg and E. Hjelmquist Communicative disability:  Compensation and development, University of Linkoping Press.


Kennedy, J.M. (1995).  Picture perception.  In T.A. Sebeok & J. Umiker-Sebeok (Eds.) Advances in Visual Semiotics:  Approaches to Semiotics, 118.  Mouton de Gruyter, 185-215.


Kennedy, J.M., Nicholls, A. And Desrochers M. (1995).  From line to outline. In C. Lange-Küttner and G.V. Thomas  Drawing and Looking, Hemel Hempstead: Simon and Schuster, 62-74.


Kennedy, J.M. and Liu, C.H. (1993).  Symbolic forms and cognition.  Psyke og Logos,  Vol. 14, 441-456.


Kennedy, J.M., Pierantoni, R. And Maclaren, R.I. (1994).  Flaps in horizontal and vertical wind forces.   In Life World -- Sign World, Festschrift for M. Krampen (Eds. C. Dreyer, H. Espe, H. Kalkofen, I. Lempp, P. Pellegrino, R. Posner).  Jansen Verlag, Lüneberg, Germany, 557-577.


Kennedy, J.M. (1993).  Pictures to touch, Yale Press, New Haven.


Kennedy, J.M., Gabias, P. And Heller, M.A. (1992).  Space, haptics and the blind  Geoforum, 23, 175-189.


Kennedy, J.M. and Nicholls, A. (1991).  Perception of polar and parallel projections of cubes.  In P.J. Beek, R.J. Bootsma and P.C.W. van Wieringen (Eds.) Studies in Perception and Action, Rodopi, Amsterdam, 1991, 17-20.


Kennedy, J.M. (1991).  Illusions and knowing what is real.  In P.J. Beek, R.J. Bootsma and P.C.W. van Wieringen (Eds.) Studies in Perception and Action, Rodopi, Amsterdam, 31-33.


Kennedy, J.M. (1991).  Analogies and confluence.  Semiotic Review of Books, 2.2, 1-2.


Kennedy, J.M. (1991).  Flaps in wind forces: decomposition not influencing judgements.  Proceedings of the 88th Annual meeting of the North Carolina Academy of Science, Greensboro, North Carolina.  Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 107, 164.


Kennedy, J.M., Gabias, P. And Nicholls, A. (1991).Tactile pictures.  In M. Heller and W. Schiff (Eds.) Touch perception  L. Erlbaum, 1991, 263-298.


Kennedy, J.M., Gabias, P. And Pierantori (1990).  Meaning, presence and absence in pictures.  In K. Landwehr (Ed) , Ecological Perception Research, Visual Communication and Aesthetics, Springer‑Verlag, New York, 1990, 43-56.


Kennedy, J.M. (1974).  La percezione pittorica Cortina, Padova, 1988.  (Italian translation by G.B. Vicario of A psychology of picture perception).


Kennedy, J.M. (1987).  Lo, perception abhors not a contradiction. In S. Petry and G. E. Meyer (Eds.) The perception of illusory contours, Springer‑Verlag,  N.Y., 253-261.


Kennedy, J.M. (1985).  Insights into Blindness  Encyclopaedia Britannica Medical and Health Annual,  154‑165.  A place for metaphor in creativity tests Metaphor Research Newsletter 1985, 4, No. 2, 2‑4.


Kennedy, J.M. (1985).  Syllepse und katachrese in bildern. Zeitschrift fur Semiotik (German translation by M. Krampen). 7, 47‑62.    


Kennedy, J.M. (1984).  Metaphor and Therapy Metaphor Research Newsletter,  4, No. 1, 3‑7.


Kennedy, J.M. (1984).  How minds use pictures Social Research, 51, 885‑904.


Kennedy, J.M. (1984).  Psychology and the Arts  Ed. D. O'Hare. Review. Journal of Aesthetic Education, Summer,18, 110‑113.            


Kennedy, J.M. (1984).  Vision and Metaphors: Empirical Investigations (Reprints of "Metaphor in pictures" and "Syllepsis, catechresis and pictures").  In  Semiotic Circle Monographs  Ed. P. Perron, Nov. 4, University of Toronto.


Kennedy, J.M. (1984). The ecological basis of reversibility International Society for Ecological Psychology Newsletter,1, 6‑7.


Kennedy, J.M. (1984).  Development of drawing in the blind: Principles in sequence and examples of drawings  Aids & Appliances Review, 14, 12‑15.


Kennedy, J.M. (1983).  Meaning‑based theory of depiction.  Art Education, 36, 12‑14.


Kennedy, J.M. (1982).  Haptic pictures. In W. Schiff and E. Foulke (Eds). A source book on tactual perception. Cambridge University Press.


Kennedy,J.M. (1980).  Depiction considered as a representational system.  In J. Fisher (Ed.) Perceiving Artworks, Philosophical Monographs, Series 3, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, Pa.


Kennedy, J.M., Richardson and Magee, L.E. (1980).  Blind people recognizing and making depictions. In M. Hagen (Ed.)  The perception of pictures. Academic Press, N.Y., Vol. 2, 263‑303.  Including Appendix:  The nature of haptics (with B. Richardson and L.E. Magee).


Kennedy, J.M.  and Heywood, M. (1980).  I see what I feel New Scientist, 85, 386‑389.  (Reprinted The New Beacon, 64, 85‑90).


Kennedy, J.M. (1979).  Subjective contours, contrast, and assimilation.  In D.F. Fisher and C.F. Nodine (Eds.), Perception and Pictorial Representation. Praeger, N.Y.


Roy, E.A., Kennedy, J.M., Magee, L. and Diewert, G. (1978).  Active movement and memory in the receptor and effector functions of the hand.  In D.M. Landers and R.W. Christina (Eds.) Psychology of Motor Behavior and Sport.  Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers.


Kennedy, J.M. (1978).  Identification in different media.  In The Arts and Basic Skills, S. Madeja (Ed.), Cemrel, St. Louis.


Kennedy, J.M., Klein, D. and Magee, L. (1978).  Prosthetics of perceptual systems.  In E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of Perception, 10, New York:  Academic Press.


Kennedy, J.M. (1978).  Haptics, In E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of Perception, 8, New York: Academic Press.


Kennedy, J.M. and Fox N. (1977).  Pictures to see and pictures to touch.  In The Arts and Cognition, D. Perkins and B. Leondar (eds.).  Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins, 1977.


Kennedy, J.M. (1976).  Attention, brightness and the constructive eye.  Vision and Artifact, M. Henle (Ed.), N.Y.:  Springer (pp. 36‑38).


Kennedy, J.M. (1975).  Drawing was discovered, not invented.  New Scientist, 67, (No. 965), 523‑525.


Kennedy, J.M. (1974).  Perception, pictures and the et cetera principle.  Perception: Essays in honor of J.J. Gibson, R.B. MacLeod and H. Pick, (Eds.). Ithaca: Cornell University Press, (pp. 209‑226).


Kennedy, J.M. (1974).  A Psychology of Picture Perception. San Francisco: Jossey‑Bass.


Kennedy, J.M. (1974).  Icons and information.  In Media and Symbols.  National Society for the Study of Education Yearbook, D. Olson (Ed.).  Chicago: (pp. 211‑240).


Kennedy, J.M. (1974).  Perception Unit.  In Elements of Psychology, R. Crutchfield, D. Krech, N. Livson and W.A. Wilson.  New York: Knopf (pp. 231‑316).


                  1.  Sensory experience

                  2.  Perceptual organization

                  3.  Perceiving the world




Kennedy, J.M. and Bai, J. (2000) Tactile picture recognition: judgments of fit correlate across groups, produce high confidence. Tactile Research G roup meeting, Psychonomics Society, Nov 16, New Orleans.


Chiappe, D. and Kennedy, J. M. (2000) Literal bases for metaphor and simile: Category and similarity claims. Paper presented at the Psychonomic Society meeting, Nov. 17-20, New Orleans.


Kennedy, J.M. (2000) Drawings by blind people with experience in  drawing. International confernce on art and the blind, Oct 30-31, Bologna


Kennedy, J.M. (2000) Why do blind childen enjoy art?  Annual meeting of the Trustees of the American Printing House for the Blind, Oct 13—15, Louisville, Kentucky


Kennedy, J.M, Liu, C.H., Challis, B. and Kennedy, V. (2000) Symbolic form: Danish, Japanese and Slovene. International Society for the empirical study of literature meeting July 31-Aug 4, Toronto.


Kennedy, J.M. and Bai, J. (1999) Judgement of fit predicts identification of tactile pictures, recognition memory. Paper presented at the Psychonomic Society meeting, Nov. 18-21, Los Angeles


Cabe, P.A., Abele, P.N. and Kennedy, J.M.(1999) Dominance of binocular depth information over competing kinetic occlusion information. Paper presented at the Psychonomic Society meeting, Nov. 18-21, Los Angeles


Kennedy, J.M. and Chiappe, D.L. (1998) Are metaphors elliptical similes? Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Dallas, Texas, November 19--22.


Kennedy, J.M.(1999) Haptics and pictures: Past, present and future. Paper presented at the International Conference on Perception and Action, 10, Edinburgh, August 8-13.


Jurivecic, I. and Kennedy, J.M. (1999) Attending to the relations between visual angles: errors for both eyes are attracted by metric-size ratios as angular separation of targets increases. Conference on Vision and Attention, York University, Canada, June 22nd—26th.


Kennedy, J.M. and Bai, J. (1999) Cavanagh and Leclerc shape-from-shadow pictures: do line versions fail because of the polarity of the regions or of the coastline? Conference on Vision and Attention, York University, Canada, June 22nd--26th.


Kennedy, J.M. (1998) Esref's wheels and depictions of motion in static pictures. Paper

 presented at the Tactile Research Group meeting,Dallas, Texas, November 18th.


Kennedy, J.M. (1998) Tactile pictures: what enables recognition, recall and good errors?

Second Swedish symposium on Multimodal Communication, Lund, October 16--17.


Kennedy, J.M. (1998). Perception: Consistency and contradiction in the service of realism.  Invited address to the Learning in Museums Symposium, National Museum, Stockholm, Sweden, June 11-12  


Kennedy, J.M. (1998).  Explaining the ability to recognize pictures via touch: Axis theory.  Invited address to conference on Representation and Blindness, San Marino, May 22-23.


Kennedy, J.M. (1997).  When is a metaphor stronger than a simile?  Conference on Cognitive Theories of  Intertextuality, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Dec. 30-31.


Kennedy, J.M. (1997) What makes a metaphor stronger than a simile?  Researching and Applying Metaphor II Conference. Copenhagen, May 29-31.


Kennedy, J.M. and D'Angiulli, A. (1997) Children exploring passively recognize as many tactile pictures as adults. Society for Research in Child Development meeting, Washington, D.C., April 3-6.


Kennedy, J.M. and Eriksson, Y. (1997) Blind children recognizing pictures and making drawings: Origins of pictorial abilities.  College Art Association 85th Annual Meeting, February 12-15, New York.


Steven L. Funk, John M. Kennedy, and Itsuo Kumazawa (1997) Features of Figure‑Ground Separation: Contours, Axes, Corners, and Junctions. Paper presented at the '2nd International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience (ICCIN2)', part of the 'Joint Conference of Information Science (JCIS'97)', Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, March 1 ‑ 5.


Kennedy, J.M. (1996) Theory of tactile pictures for the blind. Conference on Pictures for the Disabled, Stockholm, December 4th.


Kennedy, J.M. and Chiappe, D. (1996) Metaphors involve more features than similes. Psychonomics Society, Nov. 1-3, Chicago


Steven L. Funk, Itsuo Kumazawa and John M. Kennedy (1996) The Role of Non‑Linear Receptive Fields in Shift‑Invariant Feature Extraction. Poster Presented at the 'Meeting on Image Recognition and Understanding 96 (MIRU 96)' Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara, Japan, July 17 ‑ 19.


Miyoshi, H. and Kennedy, J.M.  (1995) Combining illusions:  A perfect additivity model fits imperfect-additivity results.   Psychonomics Society meeting, Nov. 10-12, Los Angeles.


D'Anguilli, A.,  Kennedy, J.M. and Heller, M.A. (1995) Tactile picture recognition by blind and sighted children. Tactile Perception Research Group, Psychonomics Society meeting, Nov. 9, Los Angeles.


Kennedy, J.M. (1995).  Where is the information in a picture or a symbol?  Invited address, Division 10, American Psychological Association, August 11-15, New York.


Kennedy, J.M. (1995)  Metaphor in pictures:  Metonymy evokes classification American Psychological Association, August 11-15, New York.


Kennedy, J.M., Mirabella, G. and Navaratnam, A. (1995) Distal touch: Space, haptics and orientation.  In Symposium on Haptic Information for Spatial Perception.  International Conference on Perception and Action, July 9-14, Marseille.


Kennedy, J.M. and Funk, S. (1995) Outline perception:  Three theories of axes.   International Conference on Visual Coding, York University, June 20-24.


Kumazawa, I., Kennedy, J.M., Grinnell, P. (1995) Alignment:  Two models tested with an apparent motion task.  International Conference on Visual Coding, York University, June 20-24.


Kennedy, J.M. and  Mirabella, G. (1994).  Haptic objects participate in 3-D spatial transformations (with G. Mirabella) Tactile research group, Psychonomics Society meeting, St. Louis, MO, November 10.


Kennedy, J.M., Liu, C.H.. and Miyoshi, H. (1994).  Accretion/Deletion:  Shafts of illumination through dusty air, Psychonomics Society meeting, St. Louis, MO; November 11-13.


Kennedy, J.M. (1994).  Figure-ground, information and symbolism.  Basic Problems in Visual Communication Conference, Copenhagen University, September 30 - October 2.


Vervaeke, J. and Kennedy, J.M. (1994).  Metaphors in language and thought:  falsification and multiple meanings  American Psychological Association meeting, August 12-15, Los Angeles.


Kennedy, V.R. and Kennedy, J.M. (1994).  Symbolism can be extended by style.  American Psychological Association meeting, L.A., August 12-15.


Nicholls, A. and Kennedy, J.M. (1994).  Short middle obliques in drawings of cubes by children aged 6-10.   International Association for Empirical Aesthetics meeting, Montreal, August 4-5.


Berntsen, D. and Kennedy, J.M. (1994).  Contradiction conveys attitudes -- in metaphor, irony, understatement and tautology.  Conference on the Psychology of Literature, July 1-4,  Budapest, Hungary.


Kennedy, J.M. (1994).  Pictures, metaphors, analogies and symbols.  Conference on Cognitive Linguistics and Semiotics, Aarhus University Institute for Semiotics, June 1-5.


Berntsen, D. and Kennedy, J.M. (1994).  Contradiction conveys attitudes -- Ditlevsen and alienation. Conference on Cognitive Linguistics and Semiotics, Aarhus University Institute for Semiotics, June 1-5.


Heller, M. A. and Kennedy, J.M. (1993).  Production and interpretation of pictures of houses by blind people.  Psychonomics Society meeting, Washington, D.C., November 5-7.


Kennedy, J.M. (1993).  Theories of touch and theories of pictures.  Presidential address, Division 10, Psychology and the Arts, American Psychological Association meeting, Toronto, August 20-24.


Kennedy, J.M. and Kennedy, V.R. (1993).  Realism as a basis for reinterpretation in visual metaphor. Word and Image Conference, Ottawa, August 16-20.  


Kennedy, J.M., Liu, C.H. and Reith, E. (1993).  Are illusory effects additive?  Or just affirmative?  7th International Conference on Event Perception and Action, University of British Columbia, August 8-13.


Kennedy, J.M. (1993).  Illusions appearance and reality.  7th International Conference on Event Perception and Action, University of British Columbia, August 8-13.


Kennedy, J.M. and Eriksson, Y. (1993).  Profiles and orientation of tactile pictures.   European Society for Applied Psychology, Helsinki, July 3-6.


Kennedy, J.M. and Kulik, M. (1992).  Accretion and deletion in illuminated, textured environments.  International conference on flow fields and event perception.  York University, June 11-12.


Vervaeke, J., Green, C.D. and Kennedy, J.M. (1993).  Women, fire and dangerous theories: A critique of Lakoff's theory of categorization.  Paper presented at the meeting of the Canadian Psychological Association, Montreal, 27-29 May.


Kennedy, J.M. (1993).  Review of E.H. Spitz  Image and insight, Columbia University Press, 1991.  In Journal of Aesthetic Education.


Kennedy, J.M. and Nicholls, A. (1992).  Perspective robustness and optical infinity (with A. Nicholls). Canadian Psychological Association Meeting, Quebec City, June 13-17.


Nicholls, A. and Kennedy, J.M. (1992).  Foreshortening and the perception of parallel projections. Canadian Society for Brain and Behavioural Sciences meeting, Quebec City, June 11-12.


Kennedy, J. M. (1991).  Review of G. Lakoff and M. Turner (1989) More than cool reason: a field guide to poetic metaphor, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  In Canadian Review of Comparative Literature, 18, 581-583.


Kennedy, J.M. , Green, C.D., Nicholls, A. and Liu, C.H. (1991).  Illusions and knowing what is real.  Conference on Event Perception and Action, Amsterdam, Aug. 25-30.


Nicholls, A. and Kennedy, J.M. (1990).  Development of drawing:  Adult's and children's drawings of cubes.   Canadian Psychological Association meeting, Ottawa,

      May 31-June 3.


Kennedy, J.M., Pierantoni, R. anad MacLaren, R.I. (1989).  Flaps in horizontal and vertical wind forces Psychonomic Society conference, Atlanta, November 17-19.


Heller, M..A. and  Kennedy, J.M. (1989).  Perspective taking, pictures and the blind Psychonomic Society conference, Atlanta, November 17-19th.


Pierantoni, R., Kennedy, J. M. and Gabias P. (1989).  Metaphor, rolling balls and static depiction 1st European Congress of Psychology, Amsterdam, July 2-7.


Kennedy, J.M. (1988).  Review of M.J. Parsons  How we understand art!  A cognitive developmental account of aesthetic experience.  Contemporary Psychology, 33, 1063‑4, 1988.


Kennedy, J.M.  Review of M. Kubovy  The Psychology of Perspective and Renaissance Art. Contemporary Psychology, 33, 336‑7.


Kennedy, J.M. (1988).  Outline and shape‑from‑shading.  The little lines that can't.  Psychonomic Society Conference, Chicago, November 10‑12.


Kennedy, J.M. (1988).  Octaves in touch.  Pre‑conference meeting on touch perception. Psychonomic Society, Chicago, November 9.


Kennedy, J.M. (1987).  Review of R. Arnheim  New essays on the Psychology of Art. Contemporary Psychology,  32, 952‑4.


Kennedy, J.M. (1987).  Outline, positives and negatives:  which least shows objects in chiaroscuro?  Psychonomic Society Conference, Seattle, November 6‑8, 1987.


Kennedy, J.M. Pierantoni, R. and Gabias P. (1987).  Metaphor, motion and static depiction.  Pre-conference meeting on touch perception, Psychonomic Society,  Seattle, November 5.


Kennedy, J.M.  Drawings of cubes:  which are preferred?  Is symmetry important?  Is convergence important?  (with A. Nicholls) International Society for Ecological Psychology Conference, Hartford Ct., October 17, 1987.


Kennedy, J.M. (1987). A Gibsonian picture theory.  Invited address.  Symposium on ecological theory of perception and representation, Bonn, October 9‑10.


Kennedy, J.M. , Pierantoni, R. And MacLaren, R.I. (1987).  Supporting structures in horizontal and vertical wind forces.  Fourth International Event Perception Conference, Trieste, August 24‑27.


Kennedy, J.M. (1987).  Designs mean things.  Invited address to mark the 75th Anniversary of the Royal Ontario Museum, and the Exhibition "The Eye of the Beholder”,  April 12.


Kennedy, J.M. (1987).  Metaphor in cockpit instrumental design.  Klein Associates, Yellow Springs, Ohio, January 14, 1987.


Kennedy, J.M. and Portal, A. (1986).  Dispelling illusions by changing the observer's vantage point  Psychonomic Society Conference, New Orleans, November 13‑15.


Pierantoni, R. and Kennedy, J.M. (1986).  Flaps, arcs and spokes: Motion and force International Society for Ecological Psychology, Philadelphia, October, 1986.


Mills, R.S.L. and Kennedy, J.M. (1986).  Radiological diagnosis and the development of perceptual expertise: What does contemporary research reveal?  International Society for Ecological Psychology Conference, Chicago, May.


Simpson, W. A. and Kennedy, J.M. (1986).  Pure rotations impair recovery of depth from optic flow  International Society for Ecological Psychology Conference,  Chicago, May.


Kennedy, J.M. and Portal, A. (1986).  Illusions dispelled by viewing from glancing angles International Society for Ecological Psychology Conference, Chicago, May.


Gabias, P. and Kennedy, J.M. (1986).  Graphic texture indicates hardness to the blind.  Eastern Psychological Association Conference, New York, April.


Kennedy, J.M. (1985).  Epistemology of subjective contours, Adelphi University, November.


Kennedy, J.M., Sette, G. and Whitby, R. (1985).  Direct and indirect pictorial advertisements: Preference and memory effects.  International Society for Ecological Psychology Conference, Hartford, October.


Mills, R.S.L. and Kennedy, J.M. (1985).  Perception in the abyssal depths of the sea.  International Society for Ecological Psychology Conference, Hartford, October.


Kennedy, J.M. (1984).  Haptic pictures: How blind people judge their effectiveness & sophistication, American Psychological Association Conference, Toronto, August.


Kennedy, J.M. (1983).  Drawings by the blind:  A mentalist, meaning‑based theory.  International Conference on Psychology and the Arts: British Psychological Society, Cardiff, September.


Kennedy, J.M. (1983).  Speed lines as metaphoric depictions.  Second International Conference on Event Perception, Nashville, June.


Kennedy, J.M. and Domander, R. (1983).  Motor empathy and the perception of facial expression.  Canadian Psychological Association conference, Winnipeg, June.


Kennedy, J.M. and Domander R. (1982).  Pictorial foreground‑background reversal reduces tactual recognition by the blind.  Psychonomics Society conference, Minneapolis, November.


Kennedy, J.M. and Domander, R. (1981).  Blind people depicting wind, noise, and smell with devices including metaphors Psychonomic Society conference, November.


Kennedy, J.M. (1980).  The images of the blind.  American Psychological Association conference, Montreal, September.


Kennedy, J.M. (1980).  The meaning‑based theory of perception applied to visual puns.  International Association of Empirical Aesthetics VIIth International Colloquium, Montreal, August.


Kennedy, J.M. (1980).  Visible order:  A review of E. Gombrich's "The sense of order". Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism , Summer, 453‑457.


Kennedy, J.M. (1980).  Limitations and implications of practical uses of pictorial communication with the blind.  Ontario Psychological Association, Toronto, February.


Kennedy, J.M. (1979).  Perspective principles and the blind.  Psychonomic Society conference, Phoenix, Arizona, November.


Kennedy, J.M. and Ware C. (1978).  The phenomenon of subjective contours (Cont.)  Leonardo, 11, 348.


Kennedy, J.M. , Heywood, M.A. and Garboll, B. (1978).  Pictorial representation of movement in blind and deaf subjects  Psychonomic Science Conference, November.


Kennedy, J.M. (1980).  Pictures and the blind (Symposium paper) American Psychological Association conference, August 1978.  Reprinted Journal of the University Film Association, 32, 11‑21.


Kennedy, J.M. and Ware, C. (1978).  Attention, brightness contrast and brightness assimilation  Canadian Psychological Association Conference, June.


Kennedy, J.M. (1977).  Picture perception: Entry in The National Encyclopedia of Neurology, Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis and Psychology, B. Wolman (General Ed.) and I. Rock (Exp. Psych. Ed.).   N.Y., pp. 403‑406.


Kennedy, J.M. (1977).  Review of Handbook of Perception, Vol. V: Seeing. E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman (Eds.).  N.Y.: Academic Press, 1975, In Leonardo, 10, 335.


Kennedy, J.M. (1977).  Benson's comments on picture perception as analyzed by J. M. Kennedy (Letter) Leonardo, 10, 87.


Kennedy, J.M.  (1977).  Response to Deregowski's reply (Letter), Leonardo, 10, 86‑87.


Kennedy, J.M., Ware, C. And Magnan-Smith, J. (1977).  Illusory contours are perceived by children and are judged to be unreal.  Canadian Psychological Association Conference, Vancouver.


Kennedy, J.M. (1977).  Subjective contours in three‑dimensional objects.  Psychonomic Science Conference, Washington.


Roy, E., Kennedy, J.M., Magee, L.E. and Diwert, G.L. (1977).  Receptor and effector functions of the hand:  Is efference necessary?   National Association for Sports and Physical Activity Conference, Ithaca, N.Y., 1977.


Kennedy, J.M. and Campbell, J. (1976).  Figure‑ground coding of raised‑line tactile displays.  Canadian Psychological Association Conference, Toronto.


Kennedy, J.M. and Magee, L.E. (1976).  Contact, kinaesthesis and guidance in recognition of haptic pictures.  Canadian Psychological Association Conference, Toronto.


Kennedy, J.M. and Klein, D. (1976).  Modalities and ways of processing haptically obtained information   Canadian Psychological Association Conference, Toronto.


Kennedy, J.M. (1976).  Discussion:  Symposium on haptics.  Canadian Psychological Association Conference, Toronto.


Kennedy, J.M. (1976).  Studies on haptic pictures.  Conference on picture perception, University of Minnesota.


Kennedy, J.M., Kambek, M. , Rovet, J. and Galligan, R. (1975).  Six‑to‑eight year olds thinking about language problems involving metaphysical issues:  Nullity, privileged experience and the relative status of message and messenger.  Project Zero Conference, Harvard.


Kennedy, J.M. (1975).  On the other hand:  Reply to R. Yin.  Contemporary Psychology, 20, 598‑599 (Letter).


Kennedy, J.M. (1975).  Pattern processing:  A further rationalization of sight (Letter).  Leonardo,  8, 182.


Kennedy, J.M. (1974).  The stage beyond formal operations.  Fifth Annual Conference on Structural Learning, University of Pennsylvania.  Proceedings (ed., J. Scandura).  Office of Naval Research, Springfield, Virginia (pp. 160‑180).


Kennedy, J.M.  Chattaway, L.D. and Chattaway, E. (1974).  Restoration and selection processes in listening to sentences with phonemes deleted. Canadian Acoustical Association, Edmonton.


Kennedy, J.M. (1974).  Recognition of haptic pictures by blind adolescents.  Sixth Annual Conference on Visual Literacy, Toronto.


Kennedy, J.M. (1974).  Speaking my mind:  On the relationship between thought and language.  Canadian Psychological Association Conference, Windsor.


Kennedy, J.M.  (1974).  Are pictures inherently more memorable than words?  Institute on Psychology and Telecommunications, Canadian Psychological Association, Windsor.


Kennedy, J.M. (1974).  Review of H. Gardner's The Arts and Human Development.  In Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Fall, 1974, 23, 149‑154.


Kennedy, J.M. (1973).  The creatives are coming!  Review of C. Gowan's "Development of the Creative Individual."  Contemporary Psychology, 18, 285‑286.


Kennedy, J.M. (1973).  Review of J. H. Heaton's "The Eye:  Phenomenology and psychology of function and disorder".  In Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Fall.


Kennedy, J.M. and Kennedy, E. (1972).  Translation of Rubin's Figure and Ground. Supported by Milton Fund (Harvard) and U.S. Navy Grant, Cornell, Private circulation.


Kennedy, J.M. and Fox, N. and O’Grady, K. (1972).  Can "haptic pictures" help the blind see?  Harvard Graduate School of Education Bulletin, 16, 22‑23.


Kennedy, J.M. and Brust, R.(1972).  Reversible figures and flexibility of picture perception.   International conference on Cognition and the Arts, Perkins School, Mass.


Kennedy, J.M.  (1972).  On geometry and perceiving pictures.  Leonardo, 5, p. 285‑286 (Letter).


Kennedy, J.M. (1971).  Review of M. H. Pirenne's "Art, Optics and Photography"  Leonardo, 4, 397.


Kennedy, J. M. (1971).  Illustrations, Psychology Today, revised text.  C.R.M. Publications (invited memorandum).


Kennedy, J.M. and Mueller, E. (1970). Making babies play groups work. Early Times.


Kennedy, J.M.  (1970).  Pictorial perception.  Conference on Ecological Optics, Cornell.


Kennedy, J.M. (1970).  Outlines and Shadows.  American Psychological Association Conference, Miami.


Kennedy, J.M. (1970).  Information in pictures.  Conference on Structural Learning, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.


Kennedy, J.M. (1969).  Lines in pictures:  are they one‑sided?  Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association Conference.


Kennedy, J.M. (1968).  Prismatic adaptation and the remembered location of targets. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association Conference.


Gibson, J.J. and Toleno, T.L. (1967).  A study of the stick‑in‑water illusion with children.  Project Literacy Reports,8, 116‑124.


Kennedy, J.M. (1966). Visual adaptation and perceptual information.  M.Sc. Thesis, Queen's University, Belfast.


Kennedy, J.M. (1966).   Meditation:  an inquiry.  Interest.  Belfast, 6, 27‑31.


Kennedy, J.M. (1965).  The effect of perceptual anomalies on adaptations to displaced vision.  B.Sc. Thesis, Queen's University, Belfast.


Kennedy, J.M. (1964).  Psychology and Theology, Paper presented to the Psychology Society, Queen's University, Belfast.



Invited Lectures


Tactile pictures and the blind 3: Mohawk College Program on Orientation and Mobility, March 2, 2001


Representational universals, vision and touch. Invited address in the series “three lectures on the cultural history of the senses” Concordia University Lonergan College, March 2 2000


Tactile pictures and the blind 2: Mohawk College Program on Orientation and Mobility, March 10, 2000


Tactile pictures and motion depiction, Cognition and perception, University of Toronto, Scarborough, Jan 27, 2000.


Representational universals:University of Buffalo, March 24, 1999.


Tactile pictures and the blind: Mohawk College Program on Orientation and Mobility, Jan 12, 1999.


Perception, information and pictures by the blind: Gothenburg University, September 25, 1998.


Blind children drawing: Monash University October 22, 1997, Macquarie University, October 24; Deakin University, October 31.


Metaphor and Cognition, Monash University, October 21, 1997.


Pictures and the blind.  Lighthouse for the blind, New York, February 14, 1997, New York.


Blind children recognizing pictures.  University of Uppsala, December 5, 1996.


Pictures, perception, cognition and the blind. (four lectures) University of Linkoping, November 27-December 3, 1996.


Pictures and the blind.  Royal Canadian Institute, Toronto, October 30, 1994.


Haptics and recognition on second presentation.  University of Linkoping, 19-21 May, 1995.


Edgar Rubin and the argument from illusion.  Aarhus University, 28 October, 1994.


Are illusions additive?  UNED, National University, Madrid, 30 October, 1994.


Why outline drawings make sense to the sightless and the sighted.  Royal Canadian Institute, October 30, 1994.


Combining illusions.  Aarhus University, Denmark, Centre for Semiotic Research, September 28, 1994; UNED, Madrid, September 30, 1994.


Pictures and the blind.  Roskilde University, Denmark, September 26, 1994.


Figure-ground from Rubin, Johansen & Hochberg to the present.  Faculty Research Forum (FFF), Copenhagen University, 15 Oct., 1993.


Diderot, Katz and pictures for the blind.  Invited lecture in Symposium on Object Representation in Vision and Touch, in honour of the 20th Anniversary of the Open University, Madrid, Spain, 17-19 May, 1993.


Pictures understood by the blind.  Lecture in honour of the 100th Anniversary of the Swedish Braille Library, Stockholm, Dec. 3, 1992.


Pictures to touch:  A summary.  Semiotic Circle, Toronto, Nov. 30, 1991.


Diderot's Letter on the Blind anticipates recent developments.  Colloquium in honour of V.V. Ivanov, March 8, 1991, Centre for Comparative Literature, University of Toronto.


Theory of touch and theory of pictures.  Pembroke College, North Carolina, March 25 and 26, 1991.


Perspective pictures and the blind.  National Gallery, Ottawa (Sponsored by the Ontario Educators of the Visually Handicapped) May 5, 1990.


Pictures to see and pictures to touch.  Address to Divisions 1, 3 and 10 of the American Psychological Association meeting at New Orleans, August 13, 1989.


Outlines and drawing development in the blind.  Symposium on Pictures and the Blind.  Whitney Museum of American Art, N.Y. (June 14); National Federation of the Blind, Baltimore (June 15), 1989.


The blind and pictures.  Goethe Institute and University of Michigan Departments of Psychology and History of Art, March 1988.


The blind and pictures.  Hart House Senior Members Dinner, October 28, 1987.


Outline, perspective and metaphor.  German Semiotic Society Conference, Essen, October 5‑7, 1987.


Theory of pictures.  Michigan State University, Canadian Lecturers on Pictures Series, May 26, 1987.


The blind: which of their perceptual abilities and aids permit significant mobility? Fourth International Conference on mobility and transport for elderly and disabled persons  Plenary session with Association for Biomedical Engineering, Vancouver, July, 1986.


Blind people and perception. Science Teachers Association of Ontario Conference, November, 1986.


Tactual pictures and the blind. New York State Organization of the Blind Conference, Syracuse, November, 1986.


Pictures and the blind.  Address in honour of R. Arnheim, Sarah Lawrence, N.Y., October, 1985.


Art history, perception and pictures by the blind, Art History Association of Great Britain, London, April, 1985.


Arnheim, Gestalt theory and pictures. National Art Education Conference, Champaign‑Urbana, October, 1984.


Aesthetics, haptics and pictures.  2nd Annual Conference on Applied Psychology, Adelphi University, October, 1983.


Perception, epistemology and depiction.  Rochester Institute of Technology Conference on the Perception of Pictures, October 1983.


Pictorial displays and the blind:  Elements, patterns and Metaphors.  First International Symposium on Maps and Graphics for the Visually Handicapped:  Association of American Geographers, Washington, March, 1983.


Syllepsis and catachresis in pictures Third International Summer Institute for Semiotic and Structural Studies), Toronto, June, 1982.


Drawings by blind people and a mentalist theory of depiction. Toronto Semiotic Circle meeting, November, 1981.


The psychology of depiction.  American Medical Illustrators Conference, Toronto,  August, 1981.


Blind people understanding pictures.  Conference on the Laws of Form, Centre for the History and Philosophy of Science, Florence, December, 1980.


What is to pictures as Braille is to words?  National Braille Association meeting, keynote address, Toronto, October, 1980.


Orientation and pictorial representation by the blind.  Conference on orientation and mobility.  Canadian National Institute for the Blind, Toronto, May, 1981.


Element, configuration and metaphor in depiction.  Proceedings of the Concordia University Symposium on Perception, Cognition and Representation.  Eds. J. Victoria and E. Sacca.  Concordia, Montreal, 1979.


Some research methods in picture perception.  Proceedings of the Concordia University Symposium on Perception, Cognition and Representation.  Eds. J. Victoria and E. Sacca. Concordia, Montreal, 1979.


Subjective contours ‑ theories and demonstrations, U.S. Army Conference on pictures and perception, Philadelphia Museum of Art, April, 1977.


Rules, systems and experience in pictorial communication.  The Epistemic Status of Human Emotions Symposium,  American Association for the Advancement of Science Denver, 1977.


Pictures by and for the blind.  Advances in the psychophysical and visual aspects of image evaluation. Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers Conference Rochester, 1977.


Images of Science.  Paradigms of the Present Symposium, Scarborough College, 1977.


Outline drawings:  Evidence on three theories.  In Visual Perception Visual Art.  P. Kelly and R. Menze (Eds.), National Endowment for the Arts Symposium, University of Western Carolina.  Cullowhee, N.C.:  1976 (pp. 12‑18, 25‑29).


Identification and different media:  A structural analysis. Toronto Faculty Aesthetics Study Group, 1976.


Comments on J. J. Gibson's analysis of affordances in architectural layouts.  American Society for Aesthetics Meeting, Toronto, 1976.


Pictorial metaphor:  A theory of movement indicators in static pictures.  Information through Pictures Symposium. Swarthmore College, 1976.


Rubin's Legacy and a Gibsonian reinterpretation of figure and ground.  (Symposium on brightness and space).  International Congress of Psychology, 1972, Tokyo, Japan.


The influence of paradigms on concepts in psychology. (Symposium on psychology and Society).  International Congress of Psychology, 1972, Tokyo, Japan.  (Proceedings, Edited T. Shirai, p. 18‑22).


Children in playgroups.  Invited article, Early Years, Fall, 1972.


Status:  A concept relevant to American and N. Ireland political problems.  Invited address:  Tompkins County Psychologists Association, 1969.




D.  List of Courses


a.   Undergraduate courses taught:


Introductory Psychology                 1st yr students              Major responsibility

Sensation and Perception                2nd/3rd yr                    Major responsibility

Perception and Cognition                2nd/3rd yr                    Major responsibility

Perceptual Handicaps                     4th yr                           Major responsibility

Cognition and Representation          3rd/4th yr                     Major responsibility

Thesis course                                 4th year                      Major responsibility


b.   Graduate courses taught:


Perception, representation and communication


c.   Theses supervised: (Primary supervisor at Toronto: Secondary elsewhere)


M.A.   :       J. Campbell             Haptic figure and ground 



                  J. Kumpunen           Perception and caricature



                  R. Domander          Expression recognition and empathy



                  T. Richard               Factors influencing tactile form perception



                  W. Simpson            The cross‑ratio and the perception of

                  1981‑1982             motion and structure


                  A. Nicholls              Judgements of an ideal representation

                  1986‑1987             of a cube by children and adults


                  L. Chalifoux            Shadow and illumination in high contrast

                  1986‑1987             figures compared to outline figures


                  G. Mirabella            3D orientation and tactile form



                  I. Jurecivic               The effects of angular separation and binocular

                  1997-1998             viewing on apparent visual angles              



Ph.D.  :       C. Ware                  Subjective contours, contrast and

                  1976‑1980             assimilation.


                  L. E. Magee            Processing pictures and words



                  R. Domander          Identification of incomplete line drawings

                  1980‑1987             and segment distribution. 


                  W. Simpson            Depth discrimination from optic flow:  A model

                  1982‑1987             based on simple motion detectors. 


                  P. Gabias                Outline picture perception by the blind.

                  1983‑1987             New York University (with D. Aronson)


                  J. Conway               The interaction of code type and information type

                                                                                    1984‑1987       on the perception and interpretation of visual   displays.                                                          Adelphi University (with D. Gorfein and            R.R. Hoffman)


                  A Nicholls               Perception of polar and parallel projections of cubes.                                 1987‑1991                    


                  C. Green                 Reasoning and the connectionist modelling of

                  1989-1992             deduction.


                  C.H. Liu                  Symbolic relations affect reaction time, recall and   

                  1990-1994              analogy, but not metaphor


                  Yvonne Eriksson     Tactile pictures  ( with Lena Johannesson )

                  1992-98                 Linkoping University/ Gothenburg University


                  Hiroto Miyoshi        Combined illusions: Ponzo and Muller-Lyer displays



                  Daniel Chiappe        Are metaphors elliptical similes?



                  Christophe Landerer   Drawing development

                  1998-                       Salzburg


                  Igor Jurecivic           Perspective



                  Juan Bai                  Tactile Pictures





Postdoctoral fellows:                 D. Klein, 1975‑1976

Interference effects of cognitive tasks on haptic perception


                                                 Richardson, 1977‑1979

Pattern and element perception in sequential tactile arrays. 


Research associates:                  R. Pierantoni (National Research Centre, Genoa, Italy)

                                                 1986‑1989. Perception of movement.  Naive physics.


                                                                                                                                    M.A. Heller (Winston-Salem) 1988-1996.


Itsuo Kumazawa (Tokyo Institute of Psychology), 1993-1994.


d.   Other teaching and lectures


Proseminar in psychology, Graduate students, St. George campus.  Lectures on perception.  Coordination of perception and information processing section.

Graduate student course on perception and representation, Danish Research Academy (1992).



D.  Administrative positions (Selected)


a.       Chair of Executive Committee and College Council 2000-2002

New buildings committee: Arc + Committee 2000

      Executive committee, University of Toronto at Scarborough 1998-99

Program Supervisor, Cognitive Science 1993-99

Food Services Committee 1995-1999

Academic Appeals Committee, 1994-1997

Academic Board, 1993-1996

Associate Chair, Life Sciences Division, 1989-1992

Pub Management Board, 1989-1991

Chair, College Council, 1991

Program Supervisor, Cognitive Science 1988-1990

Chair, General Policy Committee, 1988‑1989

Chair, College Council, 1987‑1988

President, Faculty Club, Scarborough Campus, 1987‑1988   

Chair, Academic Affairs, 1986‑1987

Speakers series, Perception Interest Group, 1986-1988

Associate Chair, Life Sciences Division, 1982‑1983

Snider Committee    1980‑1982

Visiting Speakers Committee  1972-1974; 1980‑1982

Committee on Enrollment limitations    1981

Library Committee  1973‑1976; 1980‑1982

Director, Teaching‑Learning Unit  1976‑1977

General Policy Committee 1980‑1982

Academic Affairs, 1983‑1984

Chairman, Search Committee 1980

Member:  various Search committees, promotions committees


b.   Outside university (education organizations)


Religious education:  Teacher and program devisor lst Unitarian Congregation 1978‑1980.


Don Heights Unitarian Fellowship, Denominational Affairs: 1994-1998, Vice-President        1997-8. President 2000-01


Chairman:  Toronto Religious Education committee, (Unitarian Congregations) 1981‑1982


Committee member:  St. Lawrence Unitarian ‑ Universalist District Religious education committee 1980‑1981


Unicamp of Ontario:  Members committee 1980‑1981, Director 1980‑1981



E.  Other Relevant Information


Consultantships: External reviewing



                   2000         McGraw-Hill Ryerson, Psychology Text                 


             2000   External reviewer: M Symmons, Monash University (active passive                         .                              perception)


2000         External referee : L. Seifert, Malone University (tenure promotion)


                  2000          External reviewer: B. Richardson, Monash University (promotion)


1999          External reviewer: H. Jenkin, York University (Mental rotation)


1999          University of Akron: Journal evaluation reviewer


1998          University of Pennsylvania : Promotion and tenure


1998          Monash University: Promotion and tenure  


1998          York University : Full Professor Research Award


1997-8       CNIB, Scarborough: Low Vision Program


                             1996    External reviewer: C. Portfors, York University (Binocular vision)


                             1996                 University of Toronto Press


1995          University of Toronto Press


1995          Guelph University:  Promotion to full Professor


1994          External Reviewer, York University, S. Hamstra (Binocular Vision).


1994          External Reviewer, University of Western Ontario, N. Turner (Proverbs).


 1994           University  of Connecticut:  Promotion to full Professor; University of Georgia:  Tenure.


                        1994                Rockefeller Foundation:  Neon Colour Proposal.


                    1989                     University of Toronto Press


                    1989         University of Western Ontario: Promotion to full Professor


                    1988‑92  Art Education for the Blind, New York.


                    1988         T.V. Ontario.


                    1987         Klein Associates, Yellow Springs, Ohio


1987                  Stockholm Public Transit (Aids for the blind)


1986            Yale, M.I.T. Presses


 1986         US Air Force (cockpit design)


1986          Review, Psychology Department, Adelphi University,


1985          Ministry of Transport, Ottawa, Public Art Films, N.Y.


1984‑85    Art Gallery of Ontario


1983          University of Minnesota:  Promotion to Associate Professor, tenure.


1981‑83     British Psychological Society International Conference Advisory Board,

                  "Psychology of the Arts", Cardiff, 1983.


1981‑82     Harvard University Press


1981‑82     Academic Press


1981          University of Papua/New Guinea:  Promotion to Associate Professor, tenure


1981-83     Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Tenure committee


1981          University of Massachusetts.  Promotion to tenure.


1978‑80     Random House


1977          Simon Fraser University:  Promotion to full professor.


1976          National Film Board of Canada


1974          Ford Foundation.  The Television Arts Project


1974          Minnesota Institute of Arts


1974          Ontario Crippled Children's Centre, Bliss Symbols Project


1972          Dushkin Press.  Introductory Psychology text.


1971          C.R.M. Press



Exhibitions, Workshops, Symposia


1993          Perception and perspective, March

1992          Prairie Gallery, Saskatchewan, April

1991          Visual rhetoric, April, Scarborough College

1987                    Metaphor in pictures, November, Scarborough College

1988                    Shape‑from‑shading, October, Scarborough College

1984                    Workshop on the development of drawing in the sighted and the blind,  

                  August, Scarborough College

1983          Workshop on metaphor, March,  Scarborough College

1982          Workshop on touch, November, Scarborough College

1981          Drawings by the blind, September, The Gallery, Scarborough College


Television programs:   November 1981, March 1982 (Global television "That's Life") September 1981 City T.V. (news) February 1989, October 1988, City‑TV. "New Music";  "The Nature of Things", February 1989, May 1989, February 1990. Arts and Entertainment, March 1992; "What on earth?", C.B.C., March 1993, April, 1997: Australian Broadcasting Company, TV & Radio, October 1997: ABC, “Good Morning America” Sunday, Jan. 4, 1998; German Public Television (Falk Wien Science Program), July 1998; Global Television News, February 14, 1999.


Newsmagazines:  Science News (1978), MacLean's (1980), Science '81 (1981) (reprinted, Duskin Press, Psychology, 84‑85), New Science (1981).


Newspapers:  New York Times (1979, 1993), Detroit Free Press and syndicated newspapers (1980), Svenska Dagbladet (1980), Toronto Star (1979, 1980, 1981), Montreal Globe (1980), Montreal Gazette (1980), Sunday Express: International News (London, 1981), Toronto Sun (1981) Globe and Mail (1983, 1993): Kokomo Tribune (1995): Australian Newspapers (3)(1997): Danish Newspaper, 1998.


Radio interviews/stories:  CBC‑FM (1975, 1980, 1981, 1985), CBC‑AM (1976, 1980, 1993, 1994), CKFH (1980), CKSC (1980), CKSO (1980), WGST (1981), CHAY (1980),CKUV (1980). Australian radio programs November 1997; Swedish public radio, October 19, 1998. Austrian radio, May 2000, Sept 2000. Bologna TV, Oct 2000


Children's 4th Grade Reader:  Starting points in reading (Ed. B. Moore) GINN, Toronto, 1981. Article by Marilyn Dunlop, pp. 155‑156.


C.D.  Scientific American “Perception”, Byron Preiss Multimedia 1998






2000   Salzburg,  Bielefeld, Bologna, American Printing house for the Blind.


1998    University of Toronto (Scarborough). Senior Alumni (Scarborough); Saturday Morning, Public Talks (Scarborough); Teaching Learning Services (Scarborough).


1997    Monash University (twice); MacQuarie; Deakin University.


1996    University of Toronto (Perception Research Group; Scarborough Perception and Cognition group).


1995    University of Toronto (Semiotics)


1994    Aarhus University (Semiotics Institute); Roskilde University; UNED, Madrid; N.Y. College of Optometry; Museum of Modern Art, N.Y.


1993    Kings College (Ontario), Copenhagen (Psychology Dept.), Lund (Cognitive Group); N.Y. College of Optometry.


1992    Aarhus University (Psychology; Semiotics:  4 open lectures), Roskilde, Uppsala, Linkoping


1991    Aarhus University; O.I.S.E.; Cognitive Group, Toronto, McMaster.


1990    Perception Group, Toronto.


1989    Trent University


1988    Brock, O.I.S.E.  Cognitive Science Program Scarborough Symposia (2)


1987    York, Hart House, Toronto, Psychology Department Colloquia, Perception Circle presentations, Adelphi University


1986    Sorbonne, Geneva, Rouen, Grenoble


1985    Concordia, Lakehead Univ, Sarah Lawrence


1984    C.U.N.Y.


1983    Tufts;  Cognitive Science Group, Toronto; Cambridge University (M.R.C.)


1980    Rockefeller, Rochester, Waterloo, Mensa, Department of Applied Chemistry of the University of Toronto


1979    Concordia, Uppsala, Nottingham, New University of Ulster, Rochester


1978    Waterloo, Yale, Stonybrook, Rutgers, Children's Hospital Toronto, Western Ontario,         McGill, Scarborough College


1976    CBC‑AM:  University of Waterloo;  University of Guelph


1975    Bell Northern Research (Ottawa);  University of Montreal; University of Minnesota;        CBC‑FM


1974    Hampshire College;  Harvard, Project Zero


1973    Belfast, Aberdeen, Edinburgh (Britain);  Padua, Trieste, Bologna (Italy); Aarhus (Denmark);  Harvard University (Psychology and Social Relations);  Erindale College; Ontario Institute for Studies in Education


1972    Aarhus University (Denmark);  Boston Colloquium for the Philosophy of Education;  University of Toronto;  University of Guelph;  Carleton University;  Cornell University; International Conference on Communication, Media and Education, Toronto


1971    Boston University (Seminar);  Bennington College, Wellesley College


1970    Duke University;  University of Pennsylvania


1969    University of Wisconsin




H.  Some Ph.D. student committees, University of Toronto, in which I participated:


Student              Thesis Title                                           Supervisor                  Date



S. Kingsnorth-Chan    Infant perception: active vs passive   M. Schmuckler        1999-


J. Vervaeke         The naturalistic imperative                        J.T. Stevenson              Jan. 10/97

                           in cognitive science                                                         


T. Keenan           Irony                                                       D. Olson                      April 25/95


R.I. MacLaren     Stories and theory of mind                       D. Olson                      Nov./93


P.D. Peterson         Epistemic subject                                  J. Eisenberg                  May/92


D. DeCunha           Proverbs                                                                                  April/91


V. Kennedy         Thackeray's illustrations                                                               Oct./88


I. Davidson          Effects of visual                                        M. Wahlstram July 27/81

                           impairments on children's

                           verbal creativity


J. Fletcher           Spatial representation       A. Keeton                                Feb. 18/81


S.A. Amenta       Achievement in competing                        E. Olsen                       June 17/80

                           theories of psychology


B.K. Houldin       A non‑linguistic test of      P. Gamlin                                 June 23/80

                           abstract thinking for deaf

                           and hearing children


G.M. Dell            Phonological and lexical  P. Reich                                   May 20/80

                           encoding in speech



M.I. Bird             Reading comprehension                           C. Bereiter                   Apr. 11/80



R. Kurtz              Assimilative exploration   C. Bereiter                               Mar. 15/77

                           and accomodative explor‑

                           ation: Two complementary

                           channels to creative



S.C. Wilson         Development of the language                    P. Gamlin                     Dec.10/76                            comprehension process

                           required to identify meaning

                           similarities across

                           different contexts


D.G. Bachor        Information processing    C. Bereiter                               Oct.14/76                                      capacity and teachability

                           of low achieving students


E.B. Bialystok     The development of spatial                       D.R. Olson                   Sept.17/76                            concepts in language and



C.A. Corlis          Curiosity in open and       S.B. Kent                                 May15/75                          closed schooling systems:

                           A developmental investigation


S.M.D. Denberg The interaction of picture                          D.R. Olson                   May 19/75

                              and print in reading instruction