John M. Kennedy
University of Toronto

Optic and haptic: the picture

J. M. Kennedy argues outline pictures are intelligible to the sighted and the blind. The sighted use lines in visible pictures to stand for edges of surfaces. The blind can use raised lines in tangible pictures in a similar fashion. One controversy in this claim is that some surface edges imply the vantage point of the observer. D. Lopes accepts this clam, and argues this helps us understand pictures in vision. R. Hopkins argues there is no equivalent in touch for vision's single vantage point, since touch involves extended regions. Hopkins argues tactile pictures give rise to beliefs. Here, it is proposed that observer's reach out from fixed locations, implying a single vantage point. Also, tactile observers readily entertain different scales, and the body that is extended at one scale is a point at a larger scale. Further, projection is a common conception for the sighted and the blind, both. These amplifications of the notion of the tactile vantage point help lessen the need to call the awareness that tactile pictures give a allow. The evidence that requires analysis of vantage points in touch is chiefly derived from congenitally blind adults and children interpreting pictures and drawing pictures in ways readily identified by the sighted at rates far above chance. This evidence has been obtained from individuals in North America, Europe and recently from Turkey. A notable case is a blind girl from Italy who has been drawing at length since age 3.